Adlam is a Unicode block containing characters from the Adlam scriptan alphabetic script devised during the late s for writing the Fula language in GuineaNigeriaLiberiaand other nearby countries. In JuneAdlam was added to the Unicode Standard with the release of version 9. In OctoberGoogle released a Noto font that supports the block, Noto Sans Adlam, although it did not handle prenasalized consonants properly. On 3 OctoberMicrosoft released an updated Ebrima font to support Adlam alphabet to Windows Insiders as part of the Windows 10 version feature update, starting from build The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Adlam block:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of the intended characters. The Unicode Standard. Retrieved The Atlantic. Google Noto Fonts.
Categories : Unicode blocks Fula language introductions. Hidden categories: All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March Namespaces Article Talk.
Thirty years later, their written script has a name: ADLaM. Typing into their computers. This once-nomadic tribe can text each other, write blogs, author books… They can teach their kids how to read and write — and sing their own alphabet song. She came to the U. When we going to have alphabet in Pular, how to read and write.
One day I went to the internet then I type Fular alphabet. I ask him how to have the book, this ADLaM alphabet. He sent me the book, free. Kids learning. It makes me proud. The younger one:. We just wanted people to be able to write correctly in their language. People who never read before can read books, flyers — or simply notes from their spouses — in the ADLaM script.
He remembers when Zainab first wrote them. She basically saw this on the internet and she learned how to read and write and she called someone, they send her the books, now all her kid know how to read and write.
Ibrahim and Abdoulaye devote an incredible amount of time promoting the script. But do they post on Facebook personally? Not that much, says Ibrahima. Ibrahima never told them. In college, he handwrote an ADLaM newspaper.
Nowadays, he often stays up most of the night editing books from strangers all over the globe, and writing new short books himself. Usually you can see my eyes. Maximum that I sleep is four hours. Absolutely not. I felt like we could do - we could do better than that.When they were 10 and 14, brothers Abdoulaye and Ibrahima Barry set out to invent an alphabet for their native language, Fulfulde, which had been spoken by millions of people for centuries but never had its own writing system.
The Fulbhe, or Fulani, people were originally nomadic pastoralists who dispersed across West Africa, settling in countries stretching from Sudan to Senegal and along the coast of the Red Sea. More than 40 million people speak Fulfulde — some estimates put the number at between 50 and 60 million — in around 20 African countries. But the Fulbhe people never developed a script for their language, instead using Arabic and sometimes Latin characters to write in their native tongue, also known as Fulani, Pular and Fula.
When he was busy or tired, young Abdoulaye and Ibrahima would help out.
You had to be somebody who knows how to read Arabic letters well and also knows the Fulfulde language to be able to decipher those letters. Isshaga replied that the only alphabet they had was Arabic, and Abdoulaye promised to create one for Fulfulde.
Building an alphabet: 'We just did it' Read transcript. The brothers developed an alphabet with 28 letters and 10 numerals written right to left, later adding six more letters for other African languages and borrowed words. They first taught it to their younger sister, then began teaching people at local markets, asking each student to teach at least three more people. They transcribed books and produced their own handwritten books and pamphlets in ADLaM, focusing on practical topics such as infant care and water filtration.
Abdoulaye left Guinea inmoving to Portland with his wife and studying finance. Ibrahima stayed behind, completing a civil engineering degree, and continued working on ADLaM. He wrote more books and started a newspaper, translating news stories from the radio and television from French to Fulfulde. Isshaga, a shopkeeper, photocopied the newspapers and Ibrahima handed them out to Fulbhe people, who were so grateful they sometimes wept.
Inmilitary officers raided a Winden Jangen meeting, arrested Ibrahima and imprisoned him for three months. He was not charged with anything or ever told why he was arrested, Abdoulaye said. Undeterred, Ibrahima moved to Portland in and continued writing books while studying civil engineering and mathematics.
ADLaM, meanwhile, was spreading beyond Guinea. They made inquiries about getting ADLaM encoded in Unicode, the global computing industry standard for text, but got no response. After working and saving for close to a year, the brothers had enough money to hire a Seattle company to create a keyboard and font for ADLaM.
But without the encoding, any text they typed just came through as random groupings of Arabic letters unless the recipients had the font installed on their computers. Following that setback, Ibrahima made a fateful decision. The instructor, Rebecca Wild, asked students at the start of each course why they were taking her class. Some needed an art credit; others wanted to decorate cakes or become tattoo artists.
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The explanation from the quiet African man with the French accent stunned Wild. He worked and worked and worked in class on the assignments, but at the same time, he was taking all this stuff he was learning in class back to ADLaM.
Wild helped Ibrahima get a scholarship to a calligraphy conference at Reed College in Portland, where he met Randall Hasson, a calligraphy artist and painter. Hasson was seated at a table one afternoon, giving a lettering demonstration with another instructor, and Ibrahima came over.
A book about African alphabets rested on the table. Hasson, who has extensively researched ancient alphabets, assumed Ibrahima meant that he and his brother had somehow modified an alphabet. During a break earlier in the day, Ibrahima asked Hasson to come and meet a few people. Hasson was so moved after speaking with them that he walked away, sat down in an empty stairwell and cried. Ibrahima made connections at the conference that got him introduced to Michael Everson, one of the editors of the Unicode Standard.
It was the break the brothers needed. Andrew Glass is a senior program manager at Microsoft who works on font and keyboard technology and provides expertise to the Unicode Technical Committee.
But here were two brothers with no training in linguistics, who developed an alphabet through a natural, organic approach — and when they were children, no less. Did they think about doing things differently?
Why are the letters ordered this way? The brothers were elated.The Sweepstakes starts at a. Pacific Time PT on December 10,and ends at p. To enter, you must be a legal resident of the 50 United States including the District of Columbiaand be 18 years of age or older.
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The variety of writing styles made it difficult for families and friends who lived in different countries to communicate easily. As they grew older, Abdoulaye and his brother Ibrahima began to translate letters, too. So, inthe brothers started coming up with an alternative. Abdoulaye was 10 years old; Ibrahima was Six months later, they had a working script. Like Arabic, its 28 letters were written right to left. But unlike Arabic, whose short vowels are written as diacritical marks above and below letters, the script assigned its five vowels proper letters.
It looked something like a cursive version of Ethiopic. The visitor tested them: With Abdoulaye in the other room, Ibrahima would take dictation. When Abdoulaye returned, he read aloud what his brother had written.
They switched and repeated the test. Over and over, the brothers consistently read out the right sounds, even those unique to Fulani.
Crucially, they spelled the same complicated words in the same ways, independently of one another. The scripts in widest use today—Latin, Chinese, Arabic, Devanagari, Cyrillic—are all at least a thousand years old, and they each evolved from earlier alphabets.
Creating a new script and getting it adopted widely is an enormous challenge. The Cherokee alphabet is a notable success story.
In the early 19th century, a man named Sequoyah created a script for writing his native Cherokee, which until then had only ever been spoken aloud. At first, many thought his scribbles were meaningless, and that he was playing tricks on people. Sequoyah began to teach others to read and write, and his simple alphabet spread quickly among tribe members. The press helped standardize and simplify the script, and made it possible to quickly publish newspapers and books.
Today, the computer-age equivalent of casting metal type in the shape of a new alphabet is encoding an alphabet in the worldwide typography standard known as Unicode. The Unicode Consortiuma nonprofit organization, develops standards for the way letters and numbers appear on computer screens.
Sincea group of technology companies have worked together to develop a universal character set—a system of coding letters, numbers, and symbols that allows computers to render any supported language in the world. The first Cherokee keyboard arrived on Windows several years later.Xbox Live Gold and over high-quality console and PC games. Play together with friends and discover your next favorite game. Run and grow your business with best-in-class Office apps, intelligent cloud services, and advanced security.
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Listen now. Follow Microsoft.The Adlam script is a recently invented script used to write Fulani. While teenagers in the late s, brothers Ibrahima and Abdoulaye Barry devised the alphabetic script to transcribe the Fulani language.Instruction pour avoir Adlam sur votre galaxie
It is one of many indigenous scripts developed for specific languages in West Africa. Adlam is supported in Google's Android and Chrome operating systems.
Adlam has case. Supplemental letters are used for other languages or for loanwords. See Omniglot in the external links for the pronunciation of the basic letters. Adlam has a number of diacritics. The 'consonant' modifier is used to derive additional consonants, mostly from Arabic, similar to e. To indicate the consonant is long, the combined long-modified diacritic is used.
When those are lengthened, the normal length diacritic macron is used, and the dot is placed under the letter. Adlam punctuation is like Spanish in that there are initial and final forms of the question mark and exclamation point, which are placed before and after the questioned or exclaimed clause or phrase.
The Adlam alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in June with the release of version 9.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Unicode range. Main article: Adlam Unicode block. Retrieved August 18, Retrieved New York: Oxford University Press. Hidden categories: Articles with short description All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March Namespaces Article Talk.
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