Content from the Brookings Institution India Center is now archived. After seven years of an impactful partnership, as of September 11,Brookings India is now the Centre for Social and Economic Progressan independent public policy institution based in India. The theme for this seminar addresses a very important aspect of an overall strategy, i. Secure livelihoods for all its citizens should indeed be a policy priority for any government. For India, where this goal seems so distant, it is an economic, social and political imperative.
I want to put forward a few facts to provide a backdrop for my approach to the issue of livelihood security.
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All these patterns are indicative of relatively high livelihood insecurity. A policy agenda that emphasizes security must, therefore, benchmark itself on how quickly it is able to change these. We need to shift large numbers of people out of agriculture into relatively more stable employment situations, we need to rapidly increase the share of people employed in the organized sector and we need to give people who are self-employed at tiny scales opportunities to work in larger and less risky organizations.
How do we go about achieving this? An effective strategy for secure livelihoods will need to simultaneously address three components — jobs, skills and safety nets. Let me briefly lay out the key issues in each of these. On jobs, in terms of the objectives laid out earlier, the key challenge is to create as many jobs as possible in activities outside of agriculture.
For many years now, we have been both aspiring to create momentum in manufacturing employment and despairing about our inability to do so. One important step in the right direction is the abolition of job security regulations, which impose an undue cost on the employer — almost like a tax on jobs — which deters rather than encourages job creation. In this context, the recent legislative reforms carried out by the government of Rajasthan are a potential breakthrough.
Giving employers flexibility to take on and lay off workers depending on business conditions will, in and of itself, encourage job creation. Of course, this is not the complete answer. A holistic job creation policy has to address the many and varied factors that increase the costs of doing business and, correspondingly, weaken competitiveness.
The three components of livelihood security: jobs, skills and safety nets
Increasing capacity and efficiency in infrastructure sectors, reducing the burden of regulatory compliance and, very importantly, removing barriers to inter-state movement of goods through the implementation of a full-fledged Goods and Services Tax GST will all contribute to manufacturing competitiveness through cost efficiencies and the full realization of scale economies.
One point I want to flag here is that more flexible hire and fire rules, while they may help to generate new jobs, do not intrinsically contribute to livelihood security. I will return to this point later. The second component, skills, is also a huge challenge.Although beset by severe challenges such as the lack of resources and sustained political will, these programmes have had some positive educational impact.
For instance, as a result of the UPE which provided free and compulsory primary education, the national primary school enrolment rate rose dramatically from 2. However, these programmes have not been accessible to all, especially to children and youth living in remote and marginalised communities. Furthermore, the secondary school system hardly provides learners with adequate vocational skills training opportunities.
Essentially therefore, most youth — particularly those living in marginalised rural and urban-slum communities — are forced either to drop-out-of or to graduate from the school system lacking the practical skills necessary for securing viable employment and livelihoods.
As noted above, the NFELSTP targets out-of-school and socioeconomically vulnerable youth such as orphans, street youth, sex workers, domestic workers from marginalised rural and urban-slum communities.
Since its inception inthe programme has been implemented in Kampala and Arua districts urban and rural respectively. In order to empower vulnerable and marginalised youth, UYDEL provides them with vocational and livelihood training in different skills or trades including hairdressing, tailoring, motor mechanics, carpentry, electronics, welding, and cookery.
Noteworthy, professionals played a central role in the development of the project curriculum, teaching-learning materials and implementation strategies as well as in monitoring and evaluating the entire project. UYDEL has recruited two professional social workers who act as the key programme facilitators.
In particular, the facilitators are responsible for community mobilisation, coordinating and monitoring programme activities, implementing public awareness campaigns and identifying and placing learners with local artisans who are skilled practitioners in selected vocational trades. These artisans are visited by the social workers to assess their willingness and capacity to train the youth. Recruited artisans are provided with basic programme orientation training and, afterwards, learners are placed with the artisans for a period of three to five months for on-site practical skills training in a field or trade of their choice.
Apart from providing vocational skills training to the youth, the artisans are also entrusted with the responsibility of providing life skills training mentorship and it is for this reason that UYDEL often selects artisans of high moral standing, highly regarded by their communities.
The pre-enrolment assessment, counselling and mentoring of potential learners is intended to ensure that only the most disadvantaged and thus deserving youth are enrolled into the programme as well as helping the youth to make an informed choice with regards to their potential vocational training. In order to effectively equip learners with sustainable practical vocational skills, the training of learners under the NFELSTP is primarily through the use of participatory methods i.
Learning by producing and earning is central to the training of the youth because most of them have been exposed to earning money at an early age having lived and continuing to live in dire conditions, including being homeless or heading households.
Additionally, participatory teaching-learning methods are also essential because most artisans and learners do not have formal education beyond primary level. To this end, a number of easy-to-read learning materials such as booklets, pamphlets and posters have been produced to enable facilitators to effectively conduct health education classes.
Some of the reading materials used include:. The social worker and UYDEL field supervisors also use the field visits to identify behavioural changes in the youths and to provide them with ongoing psychosocial counselling, support and guidance. The programme has thus become one of the major instruments of fostering individual and collective social empowerment and transformation.
More specifically, an evaluation report by UNESCO identified the following key contributions of the programme on youth and societal development and well-being:. Although the programme has had a positive impact in the lives of marginalised and vulnerable youth and their communities, it has also encountered major challenges. A number of lessons have been learnt during the course of the project implementation.
These include:.Unskilled workers experience limited career growth, often causing them to accept low-income jobs or live in poverty. Developing skills can reduce unemployment, raise wages, and boost living standards. This program aims at imparting training to those in need, allowing them to become self-sufficient, and financially stable.
Our centers train and organize artisans, assist with developing products, improve product quality and market these products. HHRD organizes training courses here, which include dressmaking, fashion design, embroidery, office automation, a diploma in IT, English language, knitting, fabric and glass painting as well as arts and crafts.
Handicraft allows local artisans to use their talent for income generation. HHRD imparts trainings of color combination, product development, and quality improvement for beneficial sale.
These homes have groups of female artisans in each to promote the concept of "one village one product" upon completion of their training. Building and essential equipment such as sewing and embroidery machines along with accessories and the running expenses are being provided by HHRD donations. One successful production of these homes is making school bags for children. HHRD has initiated this program in Kashmir Pakistan, not only to provide better work opportunities but also technical education for men and women.
Currently, 22 different courses in computers, heavy machinery operation, automobile, cooking, tailoring, construction, agriculture, and courses in education are being provided here.
Rahma Ahmed Haji is the seventh child in her family. She never went to school due to financial challenges. After completing her training, she fulfilled her dream of opening her own shop courtesy of donations from HHRD where she is now earning and supporting her family successfully.
Rahma has appreciated the support from the donors. She plans to expand her business with the savings from these sales. Souad Shehadeh- Um Mohammad is a Syrian refugee with three children. She suffered immensely after coming to seek refuge in Jordan. Her husband brings in barely enough income to cover their rent and food. Currently, she earns a steady income to support her family.
Moreover, she is expanding her workshop into other areas as well. All funds raised for 'Skills Development Centers' will exclusively be designated towards the Skills Development Centers projects; after fundraising and administrative expenses.
HHRD received an overall score of Skills Development and Livelihood Donate Now. Annual Report One Home, One Skill: To Sustain Livelihood in Every Household Unskilled workers experience limited career growth, often causing them to accept low-income jobs or live in poverty.Livelihood training is essential in any community, whether that be in the developed world or the developing world.
Livelihood training links technical and further education and training with the development of skills and experience used in the workplace or to enhance the livelihood and therefore the viability of subsistence communities.
The WithOnePlanet livelihood program has a focus on three elements agroforestry, permaculture and Information and communication technology. These three elements produce skills required for survival and then advancement in the 21st Century. Working in partnership with these organisations not only work to make environments sustainable, to end poverty and hunger, to build knowledge and to create regional partnerships, they also deliver skills that can be transferred within and across communities.
Working with organisations that have track record in their respective fields alos ensure a quality outcome for the participants. The Permaculture Guidebook from Timor Leste was first published by Permatil inwith an updated version in The new international edition is available to download at www.
Agroforestry is the integration of trees and shrubs into farming landscapes for conservation and profit. Permaculture generally is the design of sustainable communities. This includes organic agriculture, housing, animal husbandry, forestry, waste management, environmental care and more, and is specific to each environment and population where it is implemented.
Information and communication technology is imbedded in most daily activities in the developed world and technological advancement means that the developing world can adopt and adapt to new technology very rapidly.
Building the capacity and proficiency of the users of the technology ensures effective and efficient take up and use of new social technologies. The Master Tree Growers program is an intensive training course that provides participants with the skills and knowledge to maintain forestry initiatives whether that be for individual land holders or community forestry initiatives like the WithOneSeed community forestry program.
The Master Tree Growers program is internationally recognised and has been delivered in a number of African countries and also in other countries in the Asia-Pacific region. It is a comprehensive resource of permaculture design, food sovereignty and environmental regeneration strategies, for all tropical countries. This is a rewriting and updating of a permaculture book produced in by Permatil and focused on Timor-Leste.
The new guidebook will be enhanced through the use of information communication technology to enable audio and video as a method of delivery. Information technology is also used to improve delivery of the book in electronic format. Info Timora Timorese social enterprise with a focus on building capacity through information communication technology. WithOnePlanet, in partnership with Info Timor, is establishing Village Learning Centres to provide access to computers, the internet and other technologies that are used by students and community members in Timorese villages for educational and livelihood activities.
A Permaculture Guidebook from Timor Leste. In the meantime you can download the original book here in Tetum. Please share this. Designed by disruptivemedia.Children from low income and vulnerable communities have an opportunity to supplement their family-income by making handmade paper products.
This platform enables children to strengthen their education, cultivate life skills, grow holistically, and intentionally work towards a brighter future in a safe and nurturing environment. Earn N Learn children receive a nutritious snack, tutorial classes and loving mentorship on a daily basis while taking part in festivals, sports, field trips and other fun activities.
Ragpickers, mostly women, collect recyclable waste from the streets and sell it for survival. As these sisters play an integral role in waste management and recycling and provide a silent but essential service to society and the environment, we call them Paryavaran Mitra, or Friends of the Environment.
This program aims to give ragpickers dignity and respect while focusing on increased wages and their holistic development. A collaborative initiative between Manav Sadhna and Dreams Foundation, this project supports pedal rickshaw drivers. On any street in Ahmedabad, one is likely to see a frail man struggling to pull a heavy load on a pedal rickshaw, often over a flyover.
Many of them suffer from TB. Most are addicted to alcohol and tobacco as a means of relief from such strenuous physical labor. Nearly 70 percent of the drivers rent the pedal rickshaw at rupees per day, meaning that they pay over rupees per year.
Some rent these rickshaws over a span of years, paying 60, rupees in rent. Their average income is rupees per day. The pedal rickshaw project was started by comparing the total amount that pedal rickshaw drivers pay in rent with the average cost of actually buying a pedal rickshaw, rupees.
The project has two prongs-design and interest-free loans. We improved the quality and design of the rickshaw to decrease the amount of exertion required by the driver to also decrease maintenance. We improved the bearings have been improved, shortened chain length, and provided a simple spring for shock absorbance. The total cost of the rickshaw is Rs. This improved rickshaw is given to a driver on loan, letting the driver pay the same amount as he would pay to rent the rickshaw, but he would be able to own the rickshaw in approximately one year.
Close to men living in the Ramapir no Tekro slum earn their living by pulling a pedal rickshaw. After the 10th standard, many children drop out of school and have no proper training or skills to secure sustainable employment, therefore they are not able to meet their daily needs.
Our skill development programs intend to reduce poverty and vulnerability of poor households by enabling youth with particular skills that will help them get jobs, earn proper wages and stand on their own feet. We are currently offering training in computer literacy, stitching and beauty parlor services.Life Skills
Our computer center imparts computer literacy through four month-courses for a monthly token fee. We offer classes in Microsoft office, Desktop Publishing, Tally, and Computer Fundamentals as well as a special course for illiterate students in basic desktop publishing.
Approximately students graduate from the computer program every year. Earn N Learn earnlearn. Children Served: Paryavaran Mitra paryavaranmitra.Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the correlation creation has been rhs bid in ethiopia without errors.
It includes the field's dictionary describing the fields and their summaries, and the correlations. See the Correlations Object definition below. This is the date and time in which the correlation was created with microsecond precision.
The list of fields's ids that were excluded to build the correlation. The id of the field to be used as the objective for a correlations test. See the Objective Field Details.
In a future version, you will be able to share correlation with other co-workers or, if desired, make them publicly available. This is the date and time in which the correlation was updated with microsecond precision. See Correlation Results Object.
Each entry includes the column number in original source, the name of the field, the type of the field, and the summary. Name of the correlation. A correlation result which is a dictionary between field ids and the result. The type of result object varies based on the name of the correlation. See Pearson's correlation coefficients for more information. Thus, the number of parameters grows with the amount of training data) measure of statistical dependence between two variables.
See Spearman's correlation coefficients for more information. A measure of association between two nominal variables. Its value ranges between 0 (no association between the variables) and 1 (complete association), and can reach 1 only when the two variables are equal to each other. It is based on Pearson's chi-squared statistic. Its value ranges ranges between 0 (no association between the variables) and 1 (complete association).
See Tschuprow's T for more information. In other words, the table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample. Its value ranges ranges between 0 and 1. A rule of thumb is: 0. See eta-squared for more information.
The value of the F statistic, which is used to assess whether the expected values of a quantitative variable within several pre-defined groups differ from each other.
It is the ratio of the variance calculated among the means to the variance within the samples. This parameter specifies the number of samples to be used during the normality test. If not given, defaults to 1024. Example: "MyADSeed" category optional The category that best describes the test.
Specifies the fields that won't be included in the test. This will be 201 upon successful creation of the statistical test and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the statistical test creation has been completed without errors.
This is the date and time in which the statistical test was created with microsecond precision. True when the statistical test has been built in development mode. The list of fields's ids that were excluded to build the statistical test. The list of input fields' ids used to build the statistical test.He was paid thousands of dollars for this content to contribute to our goal of making this the best sports betting guide on the Internet. We hope you take the time to read through his articles.
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